viernes, 19 de mayo de 2017

Artículo sobre la Declaración Americana y sus Trabajos Preparatorios

Este reporte fue elaborado por Álvaro Paúl D

Recientemente se publicó el artículo Historia y Relevancia Actual de la Declaración Americana de los Derechos y Deberes del Hombre y sus Trabajos Preparatorios, en el Vol. 47 de la Revista de Derecho de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, 2016, pp. 361-395 (se puede descargar aquí).  Éste es el resumen del artículo:

“Este artículo revisa el contexto histórico de la génesis de la Declaración Americana de los Derechos y Deberes del Hombre, y muestra la importancia actual de dicho instrumento. Además, se refiere en particular a sus trabajos preparatorios. Para hacer lo anterior, analiza el modo como los órganos del sistema interamericano de derechos humanos aplican esta Declaración, así como sus travaux préparatoires. Por último, este artículo se refiere a algunas de las discusiones de relevancia actual que se observan en los trabajos preparatorios de la Declaración.”

martes, 9 de mayo de 2017

Artículo sobre el DIH en la jurisprudencia de la Corte IDH


Reporte elaborado por Oswaldo Ruiz-Chiriboga.

La Revista Ius et Veritas (Vol. 52, 2016, pp. 330-354) publicó el artículo "Aproximación institucional del DIH y el DIDH: tendencias actuales en la jurisprudencia de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos", escrito por Elizabeth Salmón Gárate. A continuación el resumen del artículo:

"Recientemente, la interacción entre el Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos (DIDH) y el Derecho Internacional Humanitario (DIH) ha sido desarrollada significativamente en la jurisprudencia de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (Corte IDH). Este artículo analiza la tendencia reciente de los casos Masacre de Santo Domingo y Comunidades Afrodescendientes desplazadas de la cuenca del río Cacarica (Operación Génesis) de este tribunal para afirmar su competencia no solo para utilizar el DIH al interpretar los instrumentos interamericanos de derechos humanos, pero, al mismo tiempo, para aproximarse a la utilización directa de las normas humanitarias, lo que genera una zona gris entre la interpretación y aplicación de esta área del Derecho. Al hacerlo, la Corte recurre a la lex specialis si la norma del DIH es la más especializada para el caso; y utiliza el DIH hasta cierto límite, solamente para expandir el contenido de los derechos humanos, pero no para juzgar posibles violaciones del DIH, lo que resulta en una metodología de pick and choose (selectiva) de las normas del DIH."

viernes, 28 de abril de 2017

Libro: "The American Convention on Human Rights. Essential Rights"

Reporte elaborado por Oswaldo Ruiz-Chiriboga.


Oxford University Press publicó el libro The American Convention on Human Rights. Essential Rights, escrito por Thomas Antkowiak y Alejandra Gonza. Este es el resumen de la obra: 

"This book offers a thorough, critical, and accessible analysis of the American Convention on Human Rights, which is the main human rights treaty of the Americas. The authors closely review the jurisprudence of the two institutions charged with interpreting the Convention -- the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights -- with emphasis on the Court's binding judgments. They focus on the rights most developed by the Court and Commission, namely the rights to equality, life, humane treatment, personal liberty, property, due process and judicial protection, as well as the freedom of expression and reparations. They examine the case law with a victim-centered lens -- identifying key jurisprudential developments, discussing critical areas that lack consistency and rigor, and proposing alternative conceptual approaches. 

Each chapter contains an Introduction to compare the Convention right's formulation with equivalent rights in other major international and regional treaties; a Background section to consider the right's negotiation history; a Scope of Protection section to analyze the right's provisions (paragraph-by-paragraph or topic-by-topic); and lastly, a Limitations section, if applicable, to study any limitations to the right. In addition, the book's Introduction presents an up-to-date overview of the dynamic Inter-American Human Rights System, discussing the System's legal instruments, major institutions, significant impact, critical developments, and current challenges". 

La introducción del libro puede leerse aquí, y el libro puede ser adquirido aquí.

miércoles, 26 de abril de 2017

Libro: "Audi Alteram Partem in Criminal Proceedings"


Reporte elaborado por Oswaldo Ruiz-Chiriboga.

La editorial Springer publicó el libro "Audi Alteram Partem in Criminal Proceedings. Towards a Participatory Understanding of Criminal Justice in Europe and Latin America" (2017) de Stefano Ruggeri, el cual contiene dos capítulos relativos al Sistema Interamericano. A continuación un resumen de estos dos capítulos:

Participatory Rights in Criminal Justice Under the American Convention on Human Rights 

Abstract: "After analysing the Strasbourg system of human rights protection, we shall now examine the contribution of Inter-American case-law to the creation of a participatory understanding of criminal justice. Like the European Convention, the American Convention of Human Rights does not explicitly enshrine the audi alteram partem rule as such. Moreover, the Pact of San José also acknowledges the right of ‘every person’ to a ‘hearing […] in the substantiation of any accusation of a criminal nature made against him or for the determination of his rights and obligations of a civil, labor, fiscal, or any other nature’. Unlike other international human rights instruments, the American Convention provides a different linguistic expression—namely, a hearing with ‘due guarantees’ must be granted. It is not clear whether this lexical choice was due to the proximity to the common law world and especially to ties with the USA. Yet Article 8 ECHR recognised the ‘right to a fair trial’, so this difference does not seem to be of substantial importance."

Audi alteram partem in Transnational Cases Under the American Convention

Abstract: "Like the European Convention, the Pact of San José does not contain specific provisions explicitly aimed at the protection of due process rights in transnational criminal cases. Perhaps more than in Europe, the recourse to this international Charter to protect the individuals involved in transborder inquiries constitutes a relatively recent achievement, which has been rarely analysed until now. The fact that the Inter-American case-law has only rarely been called upon to examine issues concerned with due process rights in transborder cases has contributed to this situation. Moreover, a few cases were recently raised before the Inter-American institutions, providing a basis for the examination of this problematic area."

martes, 7 de marzo de 2017

Anuario Colombiano de Derecho Internacional (Vol. 10, 2017)


Reporte elaborado por Oswaldo Ruiz-Chiriboga.

En el último volumen del Anuario Colombiano de Derecho Internacional (Vol. 10, 2017) se publicaron los siguientes artículos sobre el Sistema Interamericano:
 
Building Prevention to Protect: The Inter-American Human Rights System 
Carlos Portales y Diego Rodríguez-Pinzón 

Abstract: The article explores the way that the Inter-American human rights system assumes the "responsibility to protect" in the context of serious violations of human rights that can be characterized as war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, and ethnic cleansing. The essay describes how the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights have responded to such situations by using the ample powers granted to them by the OAS member states. The authors consider that these organs have been some of the most effective tools with which this region has confronted such situations by seeking to prevent them from occurring in the first place. The Inter-American system has contributed to building democratic regimes in the majority of the countries of the hemisphere. This has been crucial to avoiding serious violations of human rights such as those mentioned above, which would have required urgent international intervention to overcome. 

Treaties over time and Human Rights: A Case Law analysis of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights 
Carlos Enrique Arévalo Narváez y Paola Andrea Patarroyo Ramírez 

Abstract: This paper analyzes the issue of treaties over time and the interpretations of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in this context. Parts 1 and 2 introduce the elements of treaty interpretation in general international law, providing criteria for the application of the evolutionary approach to treaty interpretation, the debate between the application of evolutive interpretation and the use of subsequent conduct. Part 3 addresses the issue of fragmentation in international human rights law, and through the case law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, provides evidence for the application of the rules of general international law to interpret the American Convention on Human Rights. Finally, conclusions are extracted on the basis of the case law analyzed, contrasting the Court's application of the American Convention over time, the conclusions of the International Law Commission Reports on the Fragmentation of International Law in 2008, and the preliminary conclusions of the Study Group on Subsequent Agreements and Subsequent Practice concerning treaty interpretation and the issue of the passage of time.